Screening technologies

2007
Nadire Ramadan, Ian Flockhart, Matthew Booker, Norbert Perrimon, and Bernard Mathey-Prevot. 2007. “Design and implementation of high-throughput RNAi screens in cultured Drosophila cells.” Nat Protoc, 2, 9, Pp. 2245-64.Abstract

This protocol describes the various steps and considerations involved in planning and carrying out RNA interference (RNAi) genome-wide screens in cultured Drosophila cells. We focus largely on the procedures that have been modified as a result of our experience over the past 3 years and of our better understanding of the underlying technology. Specifically, our protocol offers a set of suggestions and considerations for screen optimization and a step-by-step description of the procedures successfully used at the Drosophila RNAi Screening Center for screen implementation, data collection and analysis to identify potential hits. In addition, this protocol briefly covers postscreen analysis approaches that are often needed to finalize the hit list. Depending on the scope of the screen and subsequent analysis and validation involved, the full protocol can take anywhere from 3 months to 2 years to complete.

2007_Nat Prot_Ramadan.pdf
Chris Bakal, John Aach, George Church, and Norbert Perrimon. 2007. “Quantitative morphological signatures define local signaling networks regulating cell morphology.” Science, 316, 5832, Pp. 1753-6.Abstract

Although classical genetic and biochemical approaches have identified hundreds of proteins that function in the dynamic remodeling of cell shape in response to upstream signals, there is currently little systems-level understanding of the organization and composition of signaling networks that regulate cell morphology. We have developed quantitative morphological profiling methods to systematically investigate the role of individual genes in the regulation of cell morphology in a fast, robust, and cost-efficient manner. We analyzed a compendium of quantitative morphological signatures and described the existence of local signaling networks that act to regulate cell protrusion, adhesion, and tension.

2007_Science_Bakal.pdf
2006
Ian Flockhart, Matthew Booker, Amy Kiger, Michael Boutros, Susan Armknecht, Nadire Ramadan, Kris Richardson, Andrew Xu, Norbert Perrimon, and Bernard Mathey-Prevot. 2006. “FlyRNAi: the Drosophila RNAi screening center database.” Nucleic Acids Res, 34, Database issue, Pp. D489-94.Abstract

RNA interference (RNAi) has become a powerful tool for genetic screening in Drosophila. At the Drosophila RNAi Screening Center (DRSC), we are using a library of over 21,000 double-stranded RNAs targeting known and predicted genes in Drosophila. This library is available for the use of visiting scientists wishing to perform full-genome RNAi screens. The data generated from these screens are collected in the DRSC database (http://flyRNAi.org/cgi-bin/RNAi_screens.pl) in a flexible format for the convenience of the scientist and for archiving data. The long-term goal of this database is to provide annotations for as many of the uncharacterized genes in Drosophila as possible. Data from published screens are available to the public through a highly configurable interface that allows detailed examination of the data and provides access to a number of other databases and bioinformatics tools.

2006_Nucl Acids Res_Flockhart.pdf
Christophe J Echeverri and Norbert Perrimon. 2006. “High-throughput RNAi screening in cultured cells: a user's guide.” Nat Rev Genet, 7, 5, Pp. 373-84.Abstract

RNA interference has re-energized the field of functional genomics by enabling genome-scale loss-of-function screens in cultured cells. Looking back on the lessons that have been learned from the first wave of technology developments and applications in this exciting field, we provide both a user's guide for newcomers to the field and a detailed examination of some more complex issues, particularly concerning optimization and quality control, for more advanced users. From a discussion of cell lines, screening paradigms, reagent types and read-out methodologies, we explore in particular the complexities of designing optimal controls and normalization strategies for these challenging but extremely powerful studies.

2006_Nat Rev Gene_Echeverri.pdf
2005
Susan Armknecht, Michael Boutros, Amy Kiger, Kent Nybakken, Bernard Mathey-Prevot, and Norbert Perrimon. 2005. “High-throughput RNA interference screens in Drosophila tissue culture cells.” Methods Enzymol, 392, Pp. 55-73.Abstract

This chapter describes the method used to conduct high-throughput screening (HTs) by RNA interference in Drosophila tissue culture cells. It covers four main topics: (1) a brief description of the existing platforms to conduct RNAi-screens in cell-based assays; (2) a table of the Drosophila cell lines available for these screens and a brief mention of the need to establish other cell lines as well as cultures of primary cells; (3) a discussion of the considerations and protocols involved in establishing assays suitable for HTS in a 384-well format; and (A) a summary of the various ways of handling raw data from an ongoing screen, with special emphasis on how to apply normalization for experimental variation and statistical filters to sort out noise from signals.

2005_Methods Enzym_Armknecht.pdf

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