Data visualization

Screenshot of online tools

Navigating our online tools -- orthologs, literature mining, qPCR primers, and so much more!

February 14, 2019

We have been taking a critical look at how we organize our online tools on the Online Tools Overview page. And more generally, we have been thinking about new ways to spread the word about the many resources in our suite of online tools. One way that we at the DRSC like to think about these tools is how they fit into the start-to-finish order of events in a screen or other experimental project. Various tools help define lists of genes to be studied, help identify reagents for the study,...

Read more about Navigating our online tools -- orthologs, literature mining, qPCR primers, and so much more!

Missed us at ADRC 2018? View our workshop slides!

April 19, 2018
Thank you to all those who attended our workshop at last week's Annual Drosophila Research Conference in Philadelphia, PA, USA. It was great to talk fly stocks, cell screens, and bioinformatics with the community. We are here to help and look forward to continued feedback on the resources we are building to empower your research. PDFs of our workshop presentations are attached to this news item. The slides will help you learn more about our in vivo resources for CRISPR, new pooled cell-based CRISPR screen technology, and bioinformatics resources at our facility.  Feel free to contact... Read more about Missed us at ADRC 2018? View our workshop slides!
Yanhui Hu, Arunachalam Vinayagam, Ankita Nand, Aram Comjean, Verena Chung, Tong Hao, Stephanie E Mohr, and Norbert Perrimon. 11/16/2017. “Molecular Interaction Search Tool (MIST): an integrated resource for mining gene and protein interaction data.” Nucleic Acids Res, 46, D1, Pp. D567-D574.Abstract
Model organism and human databases are rich with information about genetic and physical interactions. These data can be used to interpret and guide the analysis of results from new studies and develop new hypotheses. Here, we report the development of the Molecular Interaction Search Tool (MIST; The MIST database integrates biological interaction data from yeast, nematode, fly, zebrafish, frog, rat and mouse model systems, as well as human. For individual or short gene lists, the MIST user interface can be used to identify interacting partners based on protein-protein and genetic interaction (GI) data from the species of interest as well as inferred interactions, known as interologs, and to view a corresponding network. The data, interologs and search tools at MIST are also useful for analyzing 'omics datasets. In addition to describing the integrated database, we also demonstrate how MIST can be used to identify an appropriate cut-off value that balances false positive and negative discovery, and present use-cases for additional types of analysis. Altogether, the MIST database and search tools support visualization and navigation of existing protein and GI data, as well as comparison of new and existing data.
2018 Apr 13

DRSC & TRiP Workshop at ADRC

1:45pm to 3:45pm


Philadelphia, PA, USA
The DRSC & TRiP will be hosting a workshop at the Annual Drosophila Research Conference in Philadelphia, PA. The workshop is scheduled for Friday, April 13th from 1:45 to 3:45 PM. Come hear from DRSC & TRiP leaders Norbert Perrimon, Jonathan Zirin (organizer), Claire Yanhui Hu, and Stephanie Mohr. At the workshop, you will learn about new opportunities for community nomination and experiments using CRISPR knockout and activation, as well as learn what's new and popular among our online software and database tools. There will be something for everyone -- we will provide information... Read more about DRSC & TRiP Workshop at ADRC
Yanhui Hu, Aram Comjean, Stephanie E Mohr, The FlyBase Consortium, and Norbert Perrimon. 8/7/2017. “Gene2Function: An Integrated Online Resource for Gene Function Discovery.” G3 (Bethesda).Abstract
One of the most powerful ways to develop hypotheses regarding biological functions of conserved genes in a given species, such as in humans, is to first look at what is known about function in another species. Model organism databases (MODs) and other resources are rich with functional information but difficult to mine. Gene2Function (G2F) addresses a broad need by integrating information about conserved genes in a single online resource.
Arunachalam Vinayagam, Travis E Gibson, Ho-Joon Lee, Bahar Yilmazel, Charles Roesel, Yanhui Hu, Young Kwon, Amitabh Sharma, Yang-Yu Liu, Norbert Perrimon, and Albert-László Barabási. 5/3/2016. “Controllability analysis of the directed human protein interaction network identifies disease genes and drug targets.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 113, 18, Pp. 4976-81.Abstract

The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network is crucial for cellular information processing and decision-making. With suitable inputs, PPI networks drive the cells to diverse functional outcomes such as cell proliferation or cell death. Here, we characterize the structural controllability of a large directed human PPI network comprising 6,339 proteins and 34,813 interactions. This network allows us to classify proteins as "indispensable," "neutral," or "dispensable," which correlates to increasing, no effect, or decreasing the number of driver nodes in the network upon removal of that protein. We find that 21% of the proteins in the PPI network are indispensable. Interestingly, these indispensable proteins are the primary targets of disease-causing mutations, human viruses, and drugs, suggesting that altering a network's control property is critical for the transition between healthy and disease states. Furthermore, analyzing copy number alterations data from 1,547 cancer patients reveals that 56 genes that are frequently amplified or deleted in nine different cancers are indispensable. Among the 56 genes, 46 of them have not been previously associated with cancer. This suggests that controllability analysis is very useful in identifying novel disease genes and potential drug targets.

Arunachalam Vinayagam, Meghana M Kulkarni, Richelle Sopko, Xiaoyun Sun, Yanhui Hu, Ankita Nand, Christians Villalta, Ahmadali Moghimi, Xuemei Yang, Stephanie E Mohr, Pengyu Hong, John M Asara, and Norbert Perrimon. 9/13/2016. “An Integrative Analysis of the InR/PI3K/Akt Network Identifies the Dynamic Response to Insulin Signaling.” Cell Reports, 16, 11, Pp. 3062-3074.Abstract

Insulin regulates an essential conserved signaling pathway affecting growth, proliferation, and meta- bolism. To expand our understanding of the insulin pathway, we combine biochemical, genetic, and computational approaches to build a comprehensive Drosophila InR/PI3K/Akt network. First, we map the dynamic protein-protein interaction network sur- rounding the insulin core pathway using bait-prey interactions connecting 566 proteins. Combining RNAi screening and phospho-specific antibodies, we find that 47% of interacting proteins affect pathway activity, and, using quantitative phospho- proteomics, we demonstrate that $10% of interact- ing proteins are regulated by insulin stimulation at the level of phosphorylation. Next, we integrate these orthogonal datasets to characterize the structure and dynamics of the insulin network at the level of protein complexes and validate our method by iden- tifying regulatory roles for the Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and Reptin-Pontin chromatin-remodeling complexes as negative and positive regulators of ribosome biogenesis, respectively. Altogether, our study represents a comprehensive resource for the study of the evolutionary conserved insulin network. 

Ian T Flockhart, Matthew Booker, Yanhui Hu, Benjamin McElvany, Quentin Gilly, Bernard Mathey-Prevot, Norbert Perrimon, and Stephanie E Mohr. 2012. “ database of the Drosophila RNAi screening center: 2012 update.” Nucleic Acids Res, 40, Database issue, Pp. D715-9.Abstract

FlyRNAi (, the database and website of the Drosophila RNAi Screening Center (DRSC) at Harvard Medical School, serves a dual role, tracking both production of reagents for RNA interference (RNAi) screening in Drosophila cells and RNAi screen results. The database and website is used as a platform for community availability of protocols, tools, and other resources useful to researchers planning, conducting, analyzing or interpreting the results of Drosophila RNAi screens. Based on our own experience and user feedback, we have made several changes. Specifically, we have restructured the database to accommodate new types of reagents; added information about new RNAi libraries and other reagents; updated the user interface and website; and added new tools of use to the Drosophila community and others. Overall, the result is a more useful, flexible and comprehensive website and database.

Richelle Sopko, Marianna Foos, Arunachalam Vinayagam, Bo Zhai, Richard Binari, Yanhui Hu, Sakara Randklev, Lizabeth A Perkins, Steven P Gygi, and Norbert Perrimon. 2014. “Combining genetic perturbations and proteomics to examine kinase-phosphatase networks in Drosophila embryos.” Dev Cell, 31, 1, Pp. 114-27.Abstract

Connecting phosphorylation events to kinases and phosphatases is key to understanding the molecular organization and signaling dynamics of networks. We have generated a validated set of transgenic RNA-interference reagents for knockdown and characterization of all protein kinases and phosphatases present during early Drosophila melanogaster development. These genetic tools enable collection of sufficient quantities of embryos depleted of single gene products for proteomics. As a demonstration of an application of the collection, we have used multiplexed isobaric labeling for quantitative proteomics to derive global phosphorylation signatures associated with kinase-depleted embryos to systematically link phosphosites with relevant kinases. We demonstrate how this strategy uncovers kinase consensus motifs and prioritizes phosphoproteins for kinase target validation. We validate this approach by providing auxiliary evidence for Wee kinase-directed regulation of the chromatin regulator Stonewall. Further, we show how correlative phosphorylation at the site level can indicate function, as exemplified by Sterile20-like kinase-dependent regulation of Stat92E.

Adam A Friedman, George Tucker, Rohit Singh, Dong Yan, Arunachalam Vinayagam, Yanhui Hu, Richard Binari, Pengyu Hong, Xiaoyun Sun, Maura Porto, Svetlana Pacifico, Thilakam Murali, Russell L Finley, John M Asara, Bonnie Berger, and Norbert Perrimon. 2011. “Proteomic and functional genomic landscape of receptor tyrosine kinase and ras to extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling.” Sci Signal, 4, 196, Pp. rs10.Abstract

Characterizing the extent and logic of signaling networks is essential to understanding specificity in such physiological and pathophysiological contexts as cell fate decisions and mechanisms of oncogenesis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cell-based RNA interference (RNAi) screens enable the inference of large numbers of genes that regulate signaling pathways, but these screens cannot provide network structure directly. We describe an integrated network around the canonical receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, generated by combining parallel genome-wide RNAi screens with protein-protein interaction (PPI) mapping by tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry. We found that only a small fraction of the total number of PPI or RNAi screen hits was isolated under all conditions tested and that most of these represented the known canonical pathway components, suggesting that much of the core canonical ERK pathway is known. Because most of the newly identified regulators are likely cell type- and RTK-specific, our analysis provides a resource for understanding how output through this clinically relevant pathway is regulated in different contexts. We report in vivo roles for several of the previously unknown regulators, including CG10289 and PpV, the Drosophila orthologs of two components of the serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 6 complex; the Drosophila ortholog of TepIV, a glycophosphatidylinositol-linked protein mutated in human cancers; CG6453, a noncatalytic subunit of glucosidase II; and Rtf1, a histone methyltransferase.

Ian Flockhart, Matthew Booker, Amy Kiger, Michael Boutros, Susan Armknecht, Nadire Ramadan, Kris Richardson, Andrew Xu, Norbert Perrimon, and Bernard Mathey-Prevot. 2006. “FlyRNAi: the Drosophila RNAi screening center database.” Nucleic Acids Res, 34, Database issue, Pp. D489-94.Abstract

RNA interference (RNAi) has become a powerful tool for genetic screening in Drosophila. At the Drosophila RNAi Screening Center (DRSC), we are using a library of over 21,000 double-stranded RNAs targeting known and predicted genes in Drosophila. This library is available for the use of visiting scientists wishing to perform full-genome RNAi screens. The data generated from these screens are collected in the DRSC database ( in a flexible format for the convenience of the scientist and for archiving data. The long-term goal of this database is to provide annotations for as many of the uncharacterized genes in Drosophila as possible. Data from published screens are available to the public through a highly configurable interface that allows detailed examination of the data and provides access to a number of other databases and bioinformatics tools.