in vivo fly RNAi

Graphical image of tissue culture, fly pushing, and computer, and the team of people who work with them

DRSC/TRiP and DRSC-BTRR Office Hours

September 13, 2021

New this fall: Online office hours!

Do you have questions about modifying Drosophila cell lines with CRISPR or performing large-scale cell screens? Questions about in vivo RNAi with TRiP fly stocks or CRISPR knockout or activation with our sgRNA fly stocks? Questions about our new protocols and resources for CRISPR mosquito cell lines? Pop into our Zoom office hours to say hello and get our expert input! Registration is required (see below).

DRSC/TRiP & DRSC-BTRR Office Hours Schedule:

Mon. Sept. 27, 2021, 12...

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Xiangzhao Yue, Yongkang Liang, Zhishuang Wei, Jun Lv, Yongjin Cai, Xiaobin Fan, Wenqing Zhang, and Jie Chen. 2021. “Genome-wide in vitro and in vivo RNAi screens reveal Fer3 to be an important regulator of kkv transcription in Drosophila.” Insect Sci.Abstract
Krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of chitin, an important component of the Drosophila epidermis, trachea, and other tissues. Here, we report the use of comprehensive RNA interference (RNAi) analyses to search for kkv transcriptional regulators. A cell-based RNAi screen identified 537 candidate kkv regulators on a genome-wide scale. Subsequent use of transgenic Drosophila lines expressing RNAi constructs enabled in vivo validation, and we identified six genes as potential kkv transcriptional regulators. Weakening of the kkvDsRed signal, an in vivo reporter indicating kkv promoter activity, was observed when the expression of Akirin, NFAT, 48 related 3 (Fer3), or Autophagy-related 101(Atg101) was knocked down in Drosophila at the 3rd-instar larval stage; whereas we observed disoriented taenidial folds on larval tracheae when Lines (lin) or Autophagy-related 3(Atg3) was knocked down in the tracheae. Fer3, in particular, has been shown to be an important factor in the activation of kkv transcription via specific binding with the kkv promoter. The genes involved in the chitin synthesis pathway were widely affected by the downregulation of Fer3. Furthermore, Atg101, Atg3, Akirin, Lin, NFAT, Pnr and Abd-A showed the potential complex mechanism of kkv transcription are regulated by an interaction network with bithorax complex components. Our study revealed the hitherto unappreciated diversity of modulators impinging on kkv transcription and opens new avenues in the study of kkv regulation and chitin biosynthesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Jonathan Zirin, Yanhui Hu, Luping Liu, Donghui Yang-Zhou, Ryan Colbeth, Dong Yan, Ben Ewen-Campen, Rong Tao, Eric Vogt, Sara VanNest, Cooper Cavers, Christians Villalta, Aram Comjean, Jin Sun, Xia Wang, Yu Jia, Ruibao Zhu, Ping Peng, Jinchao Yu, Da Shen, Yuhao Qiu, Limmond Ayisi, Henna Ragoowansi, Ethan Fenton, Senait Efrem, Annette Parks, Kuniaki Saito, Shu Kondo, Liz Perkins, Stephanie E Mohr, Jianquan Ni, and Norbert Perrimon. 2020. “Large-Scale Transgenic Resource Collections for Loss- and Gain-of-Function Studies.” Genetics.Abstract
The Transgenic RNAi Project (TRiP), a functional genomics platform at Harvard Medical School, was initiated in 2008 to generate and distribute a genome-scale collection of RNAi fly stocks. To date, the TRiP has generated >15,000 RNAi fly stocks. As this covers most genes, we have largely transitioned to development of new resources based on CRISPR technology. Here, we present an update on our libraries of publicly available RNAi and CRISPR fly stocks, and focus on the TRiP-CRISPR overexpression (TRiP-OE) and TRiP-CRISPR knockout (TRiP-KO) collections. TRiP-OE stocks express sgRNAs targeting upstream of a gene transcription start site. Gene activation is triggered by co-expression of catalytically dead Cas9 (dCas9) fused to an activator domain, either VP64-p65-Rta (VPR) or Synergistic Activation Mediator (SAM). TRiP-KO stocks express one or two sgRNAs targeting the coding sequence of a gene or genes. Cutting is triggered by co-expression of Cas9, allowing for generation of indels in both germline and somatic tissue. To date, we have generated more than 5,000 CRISPR-OE or -KO stocks for the community. These resources provide versatile, transformative tools for gene activation, gene repression, and genome engineering.
Michael D Rotelli, Anna M Bolling, Andrew W Killion, Abraham J Weinberg, Michael J Dixon, and Brian R Calvi. 2019. “An RNAi Screen for Genes Required for Growth of Wing Tissue.” G3 (Bethesda), 9, 10, Pp. 3087-3100.Abstract
Cell division and tissue growth must be coordinated with development. Defects in these processes are the basis for a number of diseases, including developmental malformations and cancer. We have conducted an unbiased RNAi screen for genes that are required for growth in the wing, using GAL4-inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA) fly strains made by the Drosophila RNAi Screening Center. shRNA expression down the center of the larval wing disc using , and the central region of the adult wing was then scored for tissue growth and wing hair morphology. Out of 4,753 shRNA crosses that survived to adulthood, 18 had impaired wing growth. FlyBase and the new Alliance of Genome Resources knowledgebases were used to determine the known or predicted functions of these genes and the association of their human orthologs with disease. The function of eight of the genes identified has not been previously defined in The genes identified included those with known or predicted functions in cell cycle, chromosome segregation, morphogenesis, metabolism, steroid processing, transcription, and translation. All but one of the genes are similar to those in humans, and many are associated with disease. Knockdown of , a subunit of the Myb-MuvB transcription factor, or β, a gene involved in protein folding and trafficking, resulted in a switch from cell proliferation to an endoreplication growth program through which wing tissue grew by an increase in cell size (hypertrophy). It is anticipated that further analysis of the genes that we have identified will reveal new mechanisms that regulate tissue growth during development.
Graphical image of tissue culture, fly pushing, and computer, and the team of people who work with them

DRSC-Biomedical Technology Research Resource

October 21, 2019

We are pleased to announce that we have been funded by NIH NIGMS to form the Drosophila Research & Screening Center-Biomedical Technology Research Resource (DRSC-BTRR). The P41-funded DRSC-BTRR (N. Perrimon, PI; S. Mohr, Co-I) builds upon and extends past goals of the Drosophila RNAi Screening Center.

As the DRSC-BTRR, we are working together with collaborators whose 'driving biomedical projects' inform development of new technologies at the DRSC. At the same time, we continue to support Drosophila cell-based RNAi and CRIPSR knockout screens and related...

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Stephanie E. Mohr and Norbert Perrimon. 9/27/2019. “Drosophila melanogaster: a simple system for understanding complexity.” Dis Model Mech, 12, 10. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Understanding human gene function is fundamental to understanding and treating diseases. Research using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster benefits from a wealth of molecular genetic resources and information useful for efficient in vivo experimentation. Moreover, Drosophila offers a balance as a relatively simple organism that nonetheless exhibits complex multicellular activities. Recent examples demonstrate the power and continued promise of Drosophila research to further our understanding of conserved gene functions.

Figure 1 from the Escobedo et al. micropublication

Micropublication relevant to TRiP fly stocks

April 9, 2019

Users of TRiP RNAi and sgRNA fly stocks take note: the Weake lab at Purdue University brought to our attention that some TRiP fly stocks carry a mutant allele of seveneless. Jonathan Zirin worked with Spencer Escobedo and Vikki Weake, as well as with folks at the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center, to quickly identify the source, sequence the mutant allele, and pubilsh a micropublication so we can get the details to the community. Bottom line, as stated in the micropublication, "The presence of the sev[21]  mutation will not generally affect the use of these stocks, as the X...

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2018 Apr 13

DRSC & TRiP Workshop at ADRC

1:45pm to 3:45pm


Philadelphia, PA, USA
The DRSC & TRiP will be hosting a workshop at the Annual Drosophila Research Conference in Philadelphia, PA. The workshop is scheduled for Friday, April 13th from 1:45 to 3:45 PM. Come hear from DRSC & TRiP leaders Norbert Perrimon, Jonathan Zirin (organizer), Claire Yanhui Hu, and Stephanie Mohr. At the workshop, you will learn about new opportunities for community nomination and experiments using CRISPR knockout and activation, as well as learn what's new and popular among our online software and database tools. There will be something for everyone -- we will provide information... Read more about DRSC & TRiP Workshop at ADRC

New stocks added to the TRiP in vivo RNAi library

January 6, 2017

The TRiP has updated and curated our list of in vivo RNAi reagents for gene knockdown in fruitflies. To date, we have produced over 13,000 stocks for the benefit of the scientific community.

Visit the in vivo RNAi fly stocks and vectors page to download an excel file with the full list of fly stocks now available for order from the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (BDSC) and the...

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Benjamin E Housden, Matthias Muhar, Matthew Gemberling, Charles A Gersbach, Didier YR Stainier, Geraldine Seydoux, Stephanie E Mohr, Johannes Zuber, and Norbert Perrimon. 10/31/2016. “Loss-of-function genetic tools for animal models: cross-species and cross-platform differences.” Nat Rev Genet. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Our understanding of the genetic mechanisms that underlie biological processes has relied extensively on loss-of-function (LOF) analyses. LOF methods target DNA, RNA or protein to reduce or to ablate gene function. By analysing the phenotypes that are caused by these perturbations the wild-type function of genes can be elucidated. Although all LOF methods reduce gene activity, the choice of approach (for example, mutagenesis, CRISPR-based gene editing, RNA interference, morpholinos or pharmacological inhibition) can have a major effect on phenotypic outcomes. Interpretation of the LOF phenotype must take into account the biological process that is targeted by each method. The practicality and efficiency of LOF methods also vary considerably between model systems. We describe parameters for choosing the optimal combination of method and system, and for interpreting phenotypes within the constraints of each method.

Screenshot of the Online Tools Overview page

Is it a hit? On mining our data sets.

July 22, 2016

The DRSC/TRiP-FGR's FlyRNAi database stores results from the many cell-based screens done since 2003 using DRSC Drosophila RNAi libraries. It also stores information about knockdown and phenotypes resulting from specific combinations of in vivo RNAi fly stocks (including our TRiP stocks and also VDRC and NIG-Japan stocks). The in vivo data includes directly deposited data and results curated by FlyBase from the literature.

Even if you are not interested to do a fly RNAi screen, these data might help you. For...

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Publication describes TRiP resources

Publication describes TRiP resources

July 8, 2016

Liz Perkins and colleagues have published a paper describing the Drosophila Transgenic RNAi Project (TRiP) at Harvard Medical School. The article, published in the November 1, 2015 issue of Geneticsdetails the TRiP production pipeline, reagents generated, state of the collection, and validation efforts.

This is a great introduction to the many in vivo RNAi resources the DRSC/TRiP-FGR provides to the scientific community.


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2016 Sep 23

Boston Area Drosophila Meeting

1:00pm to 4:30pm


University of Massachusetts Boston

The DRSC-Functional Genomics Resources (formerly DRSC & TRiP) will be participating in the Boston Area Drosophila Meeting, which was organized by Alexey Verakas of UMass Boston and Jim Walker of Harvard Medical School. Hear about what's new in technologies and online tools at this regional meeting of experts in Drosophila research.