Genome-wide screen

2010
Philippos Mourikis, Robert J Lake, Christopher B Firnhaber, and Brian S DeDecker. 2010. “Modifiers of notch transcriptional activity identified by genome-wide RNAi.” BMC Dev Biol, 10, Pp. 107.Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Notch signaling pathway regulates a diverse array of developmental processes, and aberrant Notch signaling can lead to diseases, including cancer. To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the genetic network that integrates into Notch signaling, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila cell culture to identify genes that modify Notch-dependent transcription. RESULTS: Employing complementary data analyses, we found 399 putative modifiers: 189 promoting and 210 antagonizing Notch activated transcription. These modifiers included several known Notch interactors, validating the robustness of the assay. Many novel modifiers were also identified, covering a range of cellular localizations from the extracellular matrix to the nucleus, as well as a large number of proteins with unknown function. Chromatin-modifying proteins represent a major class of genes identified, including histone deacetylase and demethylase complex components and other chromatin modifying, remodeling and replacement factors. A protein-protein interaction map of the Notch-dependent transcription modifiers revealed that a large number of the identified proteins interact physically with these core chromatin components. CONCLUSIONS: The genome-wide RNAi screen identified many genes that can modulate Notch transcriptional output. A protein interaction map of the identified genes highlighted a network of chromatin-modifying enzymes and remodelers that regulate Notch transcription. Our results open new avenues to explore the mechanisms of Notch signal regulation and the integration of this pathway into diverse cellular processes.

2010_BMC Dev Bio_Mourikis.pdf Supplemental Files.zip
2009
Lorna S Kategaya, Binita Changkakoty, Travis Biechele, William H Conrad, Ajamete Kaykas, Ramanuj DasGupta, and Randall T Moon. 2009. “Bili inhibits Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by regulating the recruitment of axin to LRP6.” PLoS One, 4, 7, Pp. e6129.Abstract

BACKGROUND: Insights into how the Frizzled/LRP6 receptor complex receives, transduces and terminates Wnt signals will enhance our understanding of the control of the Wnt/ss-catenin pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In pursuit of such insights, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila cells expressing an activated form of LRP6 and a beta-catenin-responsive reporter. This screen resulted in the identification of Bili, a Band4.1-domain containing protein, as a negative regulator of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. We found that the expression of Bili in Drosophila embryos and larval imaginal discs significantly overlaps with the expression of Wingless (Wg), the Drosophila Wnt ortholog, which is consistent with a potential function for Bili in the Wg pathway. We then tested the functions of Bili in both invertebrate and vertebrate animal model systems. Loss-of-function studies in Drosophila and zebrafish embryos, as well as human cultured cells, demonstrate that Bili is an evolutionarily conserved antagonist of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Mechanistically, we found that Bili exerts its antagonistic effects by inhibiting the recruitment of AXIN to LRP6 required during pathway activation. CONCLUSIONS: These studies identify Bili as an evolutionarily conserved negative regulator of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway.

2009_PLOS One_Kategaya.pdf Supplement.pdf
October M Sessions, Nicholas J Barrows, Jayme A Souza-Neto, Timothy J Robinson, Christine L Hershey, Mary A Rodgers, Jose L Ramirez, George Dimopoulos, Priscilla L Yang, James L Pearson, and Mariano A Garcia-Blanco. 2009. “Discovery of insect and human dengue virus host factors.” Nature, 458, 7241, Pp. 1047-50.Abstract

Dengue fever is the most frequent arthropod-borne viral disease of humans, with almost half of the world's population at risk of infection. The high prevalence, lack of an effective vaccine, and absence of specific treatment conspire to make dengue fever a global public health threat. Given their compact genomes, dengue viruses (DENV-1-4) and other flaviviruses probably require an extensive number of host factors; however, only a limited number of human, and an even smaller number of insect host factors, have been identified. Here we identify insect host factors required for DENV-2 propagation, by carrying out a genome-wide RNA interference screen in Drosophila melanogaster cells using a well-established 22,632 double-stranded RNA library. This screen identified 116 candidate dengue virus host factors (DVHFs). Although some were previously associated with flaviviruses (for example, V-ATPases and alpha-glucosidases), most of the DVHFs were newly implicated in dengue virus propagation. The dipteran DVHFs had 82 readily recognizable human homologues and, using a targeted short-interfering-RNA screen, we showed that 42 of these are human DVHFs. This indicates notable conservation of required factors between dipteran and human hosts. This work suggests new approaches to control infection in the insect vector and the mammalian host.

2009_Nature_Sessions.pdf Supplement.pdf
Dawei Jiang, Linlin Zhao, and David E Clapham. 2009. “Genome-wide RNAi screen identifies Letm1 as a mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ antiporter.” Science, 326, 5949, Pp. 144-7.Abstract

Mitochondria are integral components of cellular calcium (Ca2+) signaling. Calcium stimulates mitochondrial adenosine 5'-triphosphate production, but can also initiate apoptosis. In turn, cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations are regulated by mitochondria. Although several transporter and ion-channel mechanisms have been measured in mitochondria, the molecules that govern Ca2+ movement across the inner mitochondrial membrane are unknown. We searched for genes that regulate mitochondrial Ca2+ and H+ concentrations using a genome-wide Drosophila RNA interference (RNAi) screen. The mammalian homolog of one Drosophila gene identified in the screen, Letm1, was found to specifically mediate coupled Ca2+/H+ exchange. RNAi knockdown, overexpression, and liposome reconstitution of the purified Letm1 protein demonstrate that Letm1 is a mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ antiporter.

2009_Science_Jiang.pdf Supplement.pdf
Dashnamoorthy Ravi, Amy M Wiles, Selvaraj Bhavani, Jianhua Ruan, Philip Leder, and Alexander JR Bishop. 2009. “A network of conserved damage survival pathways revealed by a genomic RNAi screen.” PLoS Genet, 5, 6, Pp. e1000527.Abstract

Damage initiates a pleiotropic cellular response aimed at cellular survival when appropriate. To identify genes required for damage survival, we used a cell-based RNAi screen against the Drosophila genome and the alkylating agent methyl methanesulphonate (MMS). Similar studies performed in other model organisms report that damage response may involve pleiotropic cellular processes other than the central DNA repair components, yet an intuitive systems level view of the cellular components required for damage survival, their interrelationship, and contextual importance has been lacking. Further, by comparing data from different model organisms, identification of conserved and presumably core survival components should be forthcoming. We identified 307 genes, representing 13 signaling, metabolic, or enzymatic pathways, affecting cellular survival of MMS-induced damage. As expected, the majority of these pathways are involved in DNA repair; however, several pathways with more diverse biological functions were also identified, including the TOR pathway, transcription, translation, proteasome, glutathione synthesis, ATP synthesis, and Notch signaling, and these were equally important in damage survival. Comparison with genomic screen data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed no overlap enrichment of individual genes between the species, but a conservation of the pathways. To demonstrate the functional conservation of pathways, five were tested in Drosophila and mouse cells, with each pathway responding to alkylation damage in both species. Using the protein interactome, a significant level of connectivity was observed between Drosophila MMS survival proteins, suggesting a higher order relationship. This connectivity was dramatically improved by incorporating the components of the 13 identified pathways within the network. Grouping proteins into "pathway nodes" qualitatively improved the interactome organization, revealing a highly organized "MMS survival network." We conclude that identification of pathways can facilitate comparative biology analysis when direct gene/orthologue comparisons fail. A biologically intuitive, highly interconnected MMS survival network was revealed after we incorporated pathway data in our interactome analysis.

2009_PLOS Gen_Dashnamoorthy.pdf Supplemental Files.zip
David Sims, Peter Duchek, and Buzz Baum. 2009. “PDGF/VEGF signaling controls cell size in Drosophila.” Genome Biol, 10, 2, Pp. R20.Abstract

BACKGROUND: In multicellular animals, cell size is controlled by a limited set of conserved intracellular signaling pathways, which when deregulated contribute to tumorigenesis by enabling cells to grow outside their usual niche. To delineate the pathways controlling this process, we screened a genome-scale, image-based Drosophila RNA interference dataset for double-stranded RNAs that reduce the average size of adherent S2R+ cells. RESULTS: Automated analysis of images from this RNA interference screen identified the receptor tyrosine kinase Pvr, Ras pathway components and several novel genes as regulators of cell size. Significantly, Pvr/Ras signaling also affected the size of other Drosophila cell lines and of larval hemocytes. A detailed genetic analysis of this growth signaling pathway revealed a role for redundant secreted ligands, Pvf2 and Pvf3, in the establishment of an autocrine growth signaling loop. Downstream of Ras1, growth signaling was found to depend on parallel mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-inositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling modules, as well as the Tor pathway. CONCLUSIONS: This automated genome-wide screen identifies autocrine Pvf/Pvr signaling, upstream of Ras, MAPK and PI3K, as rate-limiting for the growth of immortalized fly cells in culture. Since, Pvf2/3 and Pvr show mutually exclusive in vivo patterns of gene expression, these data suggest that co-expression of this receptor-ligand pair plays a key role in driving cell autonomous growth during the establishment of Drosophila cell lines, as has been suggested to occur during tumor development.

2009_Genome Biol_Sims.pdf Supplemental Files.zip
2008
Rui Zhou, Ikuko Hotta, Ahmet M Denli, Pengyu Hong, Norbert Perrimon, and Gregory J Hannon. 2008. “Comparative analysis of argonaute-dependent small RNA pathways in Drosophila.” Mol Cell, 32, 4, Pp. 592-9.Abstract

The specificity of RNAi pathways is determined by several classes of small RNAs, which include siRNAs, piRNAs, endo-siRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs). These small RNAs are invariably incorporated into large Argonaute (Ago)-containing effector complexes known as RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), which they guide to silencing targets. Both genetic and biochemical strategies have yielded conserved molecular components of small RNA biogenesis and effector machineries. However, given the complexity of these pathways, there are likely to be additional components and regulators that remain to be uncovered. We have undertaken a comparative and comprehensive RNAi screen to identify genes that impact three major Ago-dependent small RNA pathways that operate in Drosophila S2 cells. We identify subsets of candidates that act positively or negatively in siRNA, endo-siRNA, and miRNA pathways. Our studies indicate that many components are shared among all three Argonaute-dependent silencing pathways, though each is also impacted by discrete sets of genes.

2008_Cell_Zhou.pdf Supp. Info.pdf Supplemental Tables.zip
Mathias Beller, Carole Sztalryd, Noel Southall, Ming Bell, Herbert Jäckle, Douglas S Auld, and Brian Oliver. 2008. “COPI complex is a regulator of lipid homeostasis.” PLoS Biol, 6, 11, Pp. e292.Abstract

Lipid droplets are ubiquitous triglyceride and sterol ester storage organelles required for energy storage homeostasis and biosynthesis. Although little is known about lipid droplet formation and regulation, it is clear that members of the PAT (perilipin, adipocyte differentiation related protein, tail interacting protein of 47 kDa) protein family coat the droplet surface and mediate interactions with lipases that remobilize the stored lipids. We identified key Drosophila candidate genes for lipid droplet regulation by RNA interference (RNAi) screening with an image segmentation-based optical read-out system, and show that these regulatory functions are conserved in the mouse. Those include the vesicle-mediated Coat Protein Complex I (COPI) transport complex, which is required for limiting lipid storage. We found that COPI components regulate the PAT protein composition at the lipid droplet surface, and promote the association of adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL) with the lipid droplet surface to mediate lipolysis. Two compounds known to inhibit COPI function, Exo1 and Brefeldin A, phenocopy COPI knockdowns. Furthermore, RNAi inhibition of ATGL and simultaneous drug treatment indicate that COPI and ATGL function in the same pathway. These data indicate that the COPI complex is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of lipid homeostasis, and highlight an interaction between vesicle transport systems and lipid droplets.

2008_PLOSBio_Beller.pdf Supp. Info.pdf Supplemental Tables.zip
Natalie G Farny, Jessica A Hurt, and Pamela A Silver. 2008. “Definition of global and transcript-specific mRNA export pathways in metazoans.” Genes Dev, 22, 1, Pp. 66-78.Abstract

Eukaryotic gene expression requires export of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) from their site of transcription in the nucleus to the cytoplasm where they are translated. While mRNA export has been studied in yeast, the complexity of gene structure and cellular function in metazoan cells has likely led to increased diversification of these organisms' export pathways. Here we report the results of a genome-wide RNAi screen in which we identify 72 factors required for polyadenylated [poly-(A(+))] mRNA export from the nucleus in Drosophila cells. Using structural and functional conservation analysis of yeast and Drosophila mRNA export factors, we expose the evolutionary divergence of eukaryotic mRNA export pathways. Additionally, we demonstrate the differential export requirements of two endogenous heat-inducible transcripts--intronless heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and intron-containing HSP83--and identify novel export factors that participate in HSP83 mRNA splicing. We characterize several novel factors and demonstrate their participation in interactions with known components of the Drosophila export machinery. One of these factors, Drosophila melanogaster PCI domain-containing protein 2 (dmPCID2), associates with polysomes and may bridge the transition between exported messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) and polysomes. Our results define the global network of factors involved in Drosophila mRNA export, reveal specificity in the export requirements of different transcripts, and expose new avenues for future work in mRNA export.

2008_Genes Dev_Farny.pdf Table S1 & S2.pdf Table S3.xls
Jennifer A Philips, Maura C Porto, Hui Wang, Eric J Rubin, and Norbert Perrimon. 2008. “ESCRT factors restrict mycobacterial growth.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 8, Pp. 3070-5.Abstract

Nearly 1.7 billion people are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its ability to survive intracellularly is thought to be central to its success as a pathogen, but how it does this is poorly understood. Using a Drosophila model of infection, we identify three host cell activities, Rab7, CG8743, and the ESCRT machinery, that modulate the mycobacterial phagosome. In the absence of these factors the cell no longer restricts growth of the non-pathogen Mycobacterium smegmatis. Hence, we identify factors that represent unique vulnerabilities of the host cell, because manipulation of any one of them alone is sufficient to allow a nonpathogenic mycobacterial species to proliferate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, in mammalian cells, the ESCRT machinery plays a conserved role in restricting bacterial growth.

2008_PNAS_Philips.pdf Supp. Info.pdf
Sylvia Erhardt, Barbara G Mellone, Craig M Betts, Weiguo Zhang, Gary H Karpen, and Aaron F Straight. 2008. “Genome-wide analysis reveals a cell cycle-dependent mechanism controlling centromere propagation.” J Cell Biol, 183, 5, Pp. 805-18.Abstract

Centromeres are the structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation, spindle attachment, and chromosome segregation. In this study, we isolated factors required for centromere propagation using genome-wide RNA interference screening for defects in centromere protein A (CENP-A; centromere identifier [CID]) localization in Drosophila melanogaster. We identified the proteins CAL1 and CENP-C as essential factors for CID assembly at the centromere. CID, CAL1, and CENP-C coimmunoprecipitate and are mutually dependent for centromere localization and function. We also identified the mitotic cyclin A (CYCA) and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) inhibitor RCA1/Emi1 as regulators of centromere propagation. We show that CYCA is centromere localized and that CYCA and RCA1/Emi1 couple centromere assembly to the cell cycle through regulation of the fizzy-related/CDH1 subunit of the APC. Our findings identify essential components of the epigenetic machinery that ensures proper specification and propagation of the centromere and suggest a mechanism for coordinating centromere inheritance with cell division.

2008_JCellBiol_Erhardt.pdf
Katharine J Sepp, Pengyu Hong, Sofia B Lizarraga, Judy S Liu, Luis A Mejia, Christopher A Walsh, and Norbert Perrimon. 2008. “Identification of neural outgrowth genes using genome-wide RNAi.” PLoS Genet, 4, 7, Pp. e1000111.Abstract

While genetic screens have identified many genes essential for neurite outgrowth, they have been limited in their ability to identify neural genes that also have earlier critical roles in the gastrula, or neural genes for which maternally contributed RNA compensates for gene mutations in the zygote. To address this, we developed methods to screen the Drosophila genome using RNA-interference (RNAi) on primary neural cells and present the results of the first full-genome RNAi screen in neurons. We used live-cell imaging and quantitative image analysis to characterize the morphological phenotypes of fluorescently labelled primary neurons and glia in response to RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. From the full genome screen, we focused our analysis on 104 evolutionarily conserved genes that when downregulated by RNAi, have morphological defects such as reduced axon extension, excessive branching, loss of fasciculation, and blebbing. To assist in the phenotypic analysis of the large data sets, we generated image analysis algorithms that could assess the statistical significance of the mutant phenotypes. The algorithms were essential for the analysis of the thousands of images generated by the screening process and will become a valuable tool for future genome-wide screens in primary neurons. Our analysis revealed unexpected, essential roles in neurite outgrowth for genes representing a wide range of functional categories including signalling molecules, enzymes, channels, receptors, and cytoskeletal proteins. We also found that genes known to be involved in protein and vesicle trafficking showed similar RNAi phenotypes. We confirmed phenotypes of the protein trafficking genes Sec61alpha and Ran GTPase using Drosophila embryo and mouse embryonic cerebral cortical neurons, respectively. Collectively, our results showed that RNAi phenotypes in primary neural culture can parallel in vivo phenotypes, and the screening technique can be used to identify many new genes that have important functions in the nervous system.

2008_PLOS Gen_Sepp.pdf Supp. Info.pdf Table S1.xls Table S2.xls
Sriram Sathyanarayanan, Xiangzhong Zheng, Shailesh Kumar, Chun-Hong Chen, Dechun Chen, Bruce Hay, and Amita Sehgal. 2008. “Identification of novel genes involved in light-dependent CRY degradation through a genome-wide RNAi screen.” Genes Dev, 22, 11, Pp. 1522-33.Abstract

Circadian clocks regulate many different physiological processes and synchronize these to environmental light:dark cycles. In Drosophila, light is transmitted to the clock by a circadian blue light photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME (CRY). In response to light, CRY promotes the degradation of the circadian clock protein TIMELESS (TIM) and then is itself degraded. To identify novel genes involved in circadian entrainment, we performed an unbiased genome-wide screen in Drosophila cells using a sensitive and quantitative assay that measures light-induced degradation of CRY. We systematically knocked down the expression of approximately 21,000 genes and identified those that regulate CRY stability. These genes include ubiquitin ligases, signal transduction molecules, and redox molecules. Many of the genes identified in the screen are specific for CRY degradation and do not affect degradation of the TIM protein in response to light, suggesting that, for the most part, these two pathways are distinct. We further validated the effect of three candidate genes on CRY stability in vivo by assaying flies mutant for each of these genes. This work identifies a novel regulatory network involved in light-dependent CRY degradation and demonstrates the power of a genome-wide RNAi approach for understanding circadian biology.

2008_GenesDev_Sathyanarayanan.pdf Supplement.pdf
Mijung Kwon, Susana A Godinho, Namrata S Chandhok, Neil J Ganem, Ammar Azioune, Manuel Thery, and David Pellman. 2008. “Mechanisms to suppress multipolar divisions in cancer cells with extra centrosomes.” Genes Dev, 22, 16, Pp. 2189-203.Abstract

Multiple centrosomes in tumor cells create the potential for multipolar divisions that can lead to aneuploidy and cell death. Nevertheless, many cancer cells successfully divide because of mechanisms that suppress multipolar mitoses. A genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells and a secondary analysis in cancer cells defined mechanisms that suppress multipolar mitoses. In addition to proteins that organize microtubules at the spindle poles, we identified novel roles for the spindle assembly checkpoint, cortical actin cytoskeleton, and cell adhesion. Using live cell imaging and fibronectin micropatterns, we found that interphase cell shape and adhesion pattern can determine the success of the subsequent mitosis in cells with extra centrosomes. These findings may identify cancer-selective therapeutic targets: HSET, a normally nonessential kinesin motor, was essential for the viability of certain extra centrosome-containing cancer cells. Thus, morphological features of cancer cells can be linked to unique genetic requirements for survival.

2008_Genes Dev_Kwon.pdf Supplement.pdf Supplemental Movies.zip
2007
Norbert Perrimon and Bernard Mathey-Prevot. 2007. “Applications of high-throughput RNA interference screens to problems in cell and developmental biology.” Genetics, 175, 1, Pp. 7-16.Abstract

RNA interference (RNAi) in tissue culture cells has emerged as an excellent methodology for identifying gene functions systematically and in an unbiased manner. Here, we describe how RNAi high-throughput screening (HTS) in Drosophila cells are currently being performed and emphasize the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. Further, to demonstrate the versatility of the technology, we provide examples of the various applications of the method to problems in signal transduction and cell and developmental biology. Finally, we discuss emerging technological advances that will extend RNAi-based screening methods.

2007_Genetics_Perrimon.pdf
Yousang Gwack, Sonal Srikanth, Stefan Feske, Fernando Cruz-Guilloty, Masatsugu Oh-hora, Daniel S Neems, Patrick G Hogan, and Anjana Rao. 2007. “Biochemical and functional characterization of Orai proteins.” J Biol Chem, 282, 22, Pp. 16232-43.Abstract

Stimulation of immune cells triggers Ca2+ entry through store-operated Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channels, promoting nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFAT. Through genome-wide RNA interference screens in Drosophila, we and others identified olf186-F (Drosophila Orai, dOrai) and dStim as critical components of store-operated Ca2+ entry and showed that dOrai and its human homologue Orai1 are pore subunits of the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel. Here we report that Orai1 is predominantly responsible for store-operated Ca2+ influx in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and human T cells and fibroblasts, although its paralogue Orai3 can partly compensate in the absence of functional Orai1. All three mammalian Orai are widely expressed at the mRNA level, and all three are incorporated into the plasma membrane. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells, Orai1 is glycosylated at an asparagine residue in the predicted second extracellular loop, but mutation of the residue does not compromise function. STIM1 and Orai1 colocalize after store depletion, but Orai1 does not associate detectably with STIM1 in glycerol gradient centrifugation or coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Glutamine substitutions in two conserved glutamate residues, located within predicted transmembrane helices of Drosophila Orai and human Orai1, greatly diminish store-operated Ca2+ influx, and primary T cells ectopically expressing mutant E106Q and E190Q Orai1 proteins show reduced proliferation and cytokine secretion. Together, these data establish Orai1 as a predominant mediator of store-operated calcium entry, proliferation, and cytokine production in T cells.

2007_J Bio Chem_Gwack.pdf Supplement.pdf
Ramanuj DasGupta, Kent Nybakken, Matthew Booker, Bernard Mathey-Prevot, Foster Gonsalves, Binita Changkakoty, and Norbert Perrimon. 2007. “A case study of the reproducibility of transcriptional reporter cell-based RNAi screens in Drosophila.” Genome Biol, 8, 9, Pp. R203.Abstract

Off-target effects have been demonstrated to be a major source of false-positives in RNA interference (RNAi) high-throughput screens. In this study, we re-assess the previously published transcriptional reporter-based whole-genome RNAi screens for the Wingless and Hedgehog signaling pathways using second generation double-stranded RNA libraries. Furthermore, we investigate other factors that may influence the outcome of such screens, including cell-type specificity, robustness of reporters, and assay normalization, which determine the efficacy of RNAi-knockdown of target genes.

Nadire Ramadan, Ian Flockhart, Matthew Booker, Norbert Perrimon, and Bernard Mathey-Prevot. 2007. “Design and implementation of high-throughput RNAi screens in cultured Drosophila cells.” Nat Protoc, 2, 9, Pp. 2245-64.Abstract

This protocol describes the various steps and considerations involved in planning and carrying out RNA interference (RNAi) genome-wide screens in cultured Drosophila cells. We focus largely on the procedures that have been modified as a result of our experience over the past 3 years and of our better understanding of the underlying technology. Specifically, our protocol offers a set of suggestions and considerations for screen optimization and a step-by-step description of the procedures successfully used at the Drosophila RNAi Screening Center for screen implementation, data collection and analysis to identify potential hits. In addition, this protocol briefly covers postscreen analysis approaches that are often needed to finalize the hit list. Depending on the scope of the screen and subsequent analysis and validation involved, the full protocol can take anywhere from 3 months to 2 years to complete.

2007_Nat Prot_Ramadan.pdf
Jianrong Lu, Marie-Laure Ruhf, Norbert Perrimon, and Philip Leder. 2007. “A genome-wide RNA interference screen identifies putative chromatin regulators essential for E2F repression.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 22, Pp. 9381-6.Abstract

Regulation of chromatin structure is critical in many fundamental cellular processes. Previous studies have suggested that the Rb tumor suppressor may recruit multiple chromatin regulatory proteins to repress E2F, a key regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation. Taking advantage of the evolutionary conservation of the E2F pathway, we have conducted a genome-wide RNAi screen in cultured Drosophila cells for genes required for repression of E2F activity. Among the genes identified are components of the putative Domino chromatin remodeling complex, as well as the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein-like fly tumor suppressor, L3mbt, and the related CG16975/dSfmbt. These factors are recruited to E2F-responsive promoters through physical association with E2F and are required for repression of endogenous E2F target genes. Surprisingly, their inhibitory activities on E2F appear to be independent of Rb. In Drosophila, domino mutation enhances cell proliferation induced by E2F overexpression and suppresses a loss-of-function cyclin E mutation. These findings suggest that potential chromatin regulation mediated by Domino and PcG-like factors plays an important role in controlling E2F activity and cell growth.

2007_PNAS_Lu.pdf Supplement.pdf
Eric J Wagner, Brandon D Burch, Ashley C Godfrey, Harmony R Salzler, Robert J Duronio, and William F Marzluff. 2007. “A genome-wide RNA interference screen reveals that variant histones are necessary for replication-dependent histone pre-mRNA processing.” Mol Cell, 28, 4, Pp. 692-9.Abstract

Metazoan replication-dependent histone mRNAs are not polyadenylated and instead end in a conserved stem loop that is the cis element responsible for coordinate posttranscriptional regulation of these mRNAs. Using biochemical approaches, only a limited number of factors required for cleavage of histone pre-mRNA have been identified. We therefore performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen in Drosophila cells using a GFP reporter that is expressed only when histone pre-mRNA processing is disrupted. Four of the 24 genes identified encode proteins also necessary for cleavage/polyadenylation, indicating mechanistic conservation in formation of different mRNA 3' ends. We also unexpectedly identified the histone variants H2Av and H3.3A/B. In H2Av mutant cells, U7 snRNP remains active but fails to accumulate at the histone locus, suggesting there is a regulatory pathway that coordinates the production of variant and canonical histones that acts via localization of essential histone pre-mRNA processing factors.

2007_Mol Cell_Wagner.pdf Supplement.pdf

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